dc current examples

Then add the load resistor in parallel with the above circuit to form norton’s equivalent circuit for the given circuit. Now you are ready to follow the actual procedure to solve Norton’s theorem.

Current I1 is the total current supplied by the source. So, the voltage across shunt resistor, $R_{sh}$ and the voltage across galvanometer resistance, $R_{m}$ is same, since those two elements are connected in parallel in above circuit. Here is the Multisim simulation proof that shows load current is the same for the given circuit and its Norton’s equivalent circuit. So, the load is calculated as 4 Amperes as shown in the above figure. Norton’s theorem is used to reduce a complex network into a simple circuit for circuit analysis.

Obviously, the current I3 is Norton’s current. Now draw Norton’s equivalent circuit with norton’s current source in parallel with thevenin’s resistance. Like thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem also applicable to two-terminal, linear, active networks only.

Following are the formulae corresponding to each multiplying factor. Caleb Smith. DC Ammeters - Current is the rate of flow of electric charge. This current is Norton’s current (I, Remove the load resistor and replace the voltage or current source by their internal resistance. Now redraw the circuit with Norton’s current source in parallel with the norton’s resistance. Direct current is used in any electronic device with a battery for a power source. Open the load resistor (5Ω) and put a short circuit. For further information please see the related pages below: Figure 1: An animation from a PhET simulation, R.T. Paynter, “Basic Electric Components and Meters,” in, http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/circuit-construction-kit/circuit-construction-kit-ac_en.jnlp, http://www.powerinverters.org/pages/What-is-Direct-Current.html, https://energyeducation.ca/wiki/index.php?title=Direct_current&oldid=6283. So Norton’s current can be calculated as follows. To find the thevenin’s resistance of the network, remove the load resistor and replace the 80V source by a short circuit. Following are the formulae corresponding to these four resistors.

In the UK, the alternating current has a frequency of 50 … We can find the value of shunt resistance by using either Equation 2 or Equation 5 based on the available data. Direct current waveform In DC (Direct current) circuits, the flow of electrical charge (or in other words, electrons) is unidirectional and unlike AC Current, it does not periodically reverses its direction. Find the equivalent resistance of the network seen from the open-circuited terminals. In order to find the resistance, remove the load resistor and replace the 48V voltage source by a short circuit.

The benefit of AC is that it is very easy to use a transformer to increase or decrease the potential difference. This simulation can be used to explore how direct and alternating currents work. Current is the rate of flow of electric charge. Academic year.

The value of the current source (IN) is the short-circuit current between the two terminals of the network and the resistance is the equivalent resistance measured between the terminals with all the energy sources are replaced by their internal resistance. While converting the source, perform addition of 2Ω resistor with 8Ω (they are in series) and get 10Ω resistor for the circuit. Hence, the norton’s current for the given circuit is 8 Amperes. The next step is to find the Norton’s or thevenin’s equivalent resistance of the circuit. It is used in many household electronics and in all devices that use batteries. It is also used to charge batteries, so rechargeable devices like laptops and cell phones come with an AC adapter that converts alternating current to direct current[2]. The circuit after the transformation of the current source to a voltage source is shown below. Find the current through 10Ω resistor using Norton’s theorem. Direct current is defined by the constant flow of electrons (see figure 1) from an area of high electron density to an area of low electron density. Superposition Theorem Solved Examples for DC Circuits However, for very long distances, HVDC transmission can be more efficient than alternating current[2]. The instrument, which is used to measure the Direct Current called DC ammeter. In AC, the current is constantly changing direction. So, redraw the circuit with the equivalent voltage source and consider it for the analysis. Norton’s theorem can be interchangeably used with thevenin’s theorem through proper source transformations. Here we have three currents I1, I2, and I3. Repeat step 2 and 3 for all other sources and find the current or voltage across R L caused by the individual sources acting alone.

The current from a cell is a direct current (DC). In previous section, we discussed about DC ammeter which is obtained by placing a resistor in parallel with the PMMC galvanometer. The parallel resistance, which is used in DC ammeter is also called shunt resistance or simply, shunt. of Kansas Dept. He writes to fulfill  his passion on teaching and sharing the knowledge in the field of Electrical & Electronics Engineering.

It is much more expensive and difficult to change the voltage of direct current as opposed to alternating current, making it a poor choice for the high voltage transmission of electricity. Solved examples on Norton’s theorem for DC circuits are given below for better understanding. To simplify the difficulty of the problem, replace the given current source into its equivalent voltage source. Norton’s Theorem DC Circuits Solved Example 1. Identify the element for which the response is to be found. The value of this resistance should be considered small in order to measure the DC current of large value. Physics 2 (PH 202L) Uploaded by. Norton Theorem DC Circuits Solved Example 2. ANALYZE The task in D.C. analysis of a MOSFET circuit is to find one current and two voltages! Finally, add the load resistor in parallel with the above circuit and apply current division rule to find the load current. For the given circuit, calculate the current flows through the 5Ω resistor using Norton’s theorem. The typical waveform of alternating current is a pure sine wave as shown in the figure below. It is not valid to networks which have unilateral or non-linear elements like diode and transistors. If this electric charge flows only in one direction, then the resultant current is called Direct Current (DC). University. The next step is to find the norton’s resistance of the network. Direct current (DC) is an electric current that is uni-directional, so the flow of charge is always in the same direction. We know that current select a path with low resistance and a short circuit path is considered as zero resistance. 10/22/2004 Steps for DC Analysis of MOSFET Circuits.doc 3/7 Jim Stiles The Univ. Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC circuits Maximum power transfer theorem is used to determine the value of the load... Norton’s Theorem for DC circuits with solved examples, Norton’s Theorem Solved Examples for DC circuits, Limitations and applications of Norton’s Theorem. This short circuit current is called as Norton’s current. Electric Current and Circuits Example Problems with Solutions.pdf. Now apply network reduction techniques and find the network resistance. 3.

Contents. The desired range of currents is chosen by connecting the switch, s to the respective shunt resistor. The total resistance of the circuit and the total current can be calculated as follows. Mathematically, it can be written as, $\Rightarrow R_{sh}=\frac{I_{m}R_{m}}{I_{sh}}$ (Equation 1). In circuits involving batteries, this is illustrated by the constant flow of charge from the negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal of the battery.

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