atp yield definition

ATP Yield. We have 2 + 2 + 6 = 10 NADH, 2 FADH2 and -2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 4 ATP. In other words, the breakdown of β-hydroxybutyrate yields 1 NADH and 2 acetyl-CoA (= 22,5 ATP), while the breakdown of acetoacetate yields only 2 acetyl-CoA and no NADH (= 20 ATP). Also, some bacteria use different carriers in their electron transport chain than others and the carriers may vary in the number of protons they transport across the membrane. Moreover, the five-carbon sugars that form nucleic acids are made from intermediates in glycolysis. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Here are some examples of compounds: To calculate the exact ATP yield you must know your MRTs, because you need to follow the pathway from the starting compound all the way until it’s broken down into NADH and FADH2. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. This gives us 11 x 2,5 + 5 x 1,5 + 3 = 38 ATP. In eukaryotic cells, the theoretical maximum yield of ATP generated per glucose is 36 to 38, depending on how the 2 NADH generated in the cytoplasm during glycolysis enter the mitochondria and whether the resulting yield is 2 or 3 ATP per NADH. The theoretical maximum yield of ATP for the oxidation of one molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration is 38. In addition to generating ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotic cells, proton motive force is also used for functions such as transporting materials across membranes and rotating flagella. In terms of substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, and the component pathways involved, briefly explain how this number is obtained. It is present in all cells, where it is used to store and transport energy needed for biochemical reactions. Determining the exact yield of ATP for aerobic respiration is difficult for a number of reasons. Found in all known forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. You must write the process of your calculation on the exam. When the fatty acid is only 4 carbons long it will undergo its last round of beta-oxidation, and yield 1 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 2 acetyl-CoA. The number of ATP molecules generated via the catabolism of glucose can vary substantially. Adopted or used LibreTexts for your course? While glucose catabolism always produces energy, the amount of energy (in terms of ATP equivalents) produced can vary, especially across different species.

In the process of breaking down glucose, a net yield of 1 ATP is formed per every one glucose molecule processed. Have questions or comments? This means that it inhibits the glycolysis at two points and the TCA cycle, severely hampering the ATP yield of everything. Then, each acetyl-CoA enters the TCA cycle and yields 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1 ATP each.

In comparison, glycolysis has a net yield of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules per every one glucose molecule metabolized. You also need to know that each acetyl-CoA yields 10 ATP in the TCA cycle.

For example, the number of hydrogen ions the electron transport chain complexes can pump through the membrane varies between species. Your email address will not be published. 2 FADH2 yields 4 ATP (assuming 2 ATP per FADH2) by oxidative phosphorylation, Total Theoretical Maximum Number of ATP Generated per Glucose in Prokaryotes. These electron carriers will enter the mitochondria and produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy-carrying molecule found in the cells of all living things. Thus, electrons are picked up on the inside of mitochondria by either NAD+ or FAD+. To calculate the ATP yield of other glycolysis intermediates just subtract those ATP and NADH which are produced or subtracted in the steps leading up to that intermediate.

Describe the origins of variability in the amount of ATP that is produced per molecule of glucose consumed. 38 ATP: 4 from substrate-level phosphorylation; 34 from oxidative phosphorylation. We want to hear from you.

β-hydroxybutyrate is converted into acetoacetate by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, which yields 1 NADH. For each pair of electrons transferred by FADH2, between 1 and 2 ATP are generated. Let’s do hexanoate as an example. For example, the ATP yield of glucose 6-phosphate is 32 – (-1) = 33 ATP, because glucose 6-phosphate doesn’t need to be phosphorylated and therefore doesn’t need the 1st ATP from above. Dr. Gary Kaiser (COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF BALTIMORE COUNTY, CATONSVILLE CAMPUS). The amount of energy (as ATP) gained from glucose catabolism varies across species and depends on other related cellular processes. For example, sugars other than glucose are fed into the glycolytic pathway for energy extraction. This requires 1 ATP, which we need to subtract from the total in the end. As seen above, one molecule of glucose oxidized by aerobic respiration in prokaryotes yields the following: 2 net ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis. Other processes regenerate ATP … We want to hear from you. Because arsenate inhibits glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, no ATP can be yielded from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Another source of variance occurs during the shuttle of electrons across the membranes of the mitochondria. Each pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA, which yields 1 NADH each. The activation of hexanoate to hexanoyl-CoA requires 2 ATP, which we must keep in mind. Another factor that affects the yield of ATP molecules generated from glucose is the fact that intermediate compounds in these pathways are used for other purposes. For example, the ATP yield of glucose 6-phosphate is 32 – (-1) = 33 ATP, because glucose 6-phosphate doesn’t need to be phosphorylated and therefore doesn’t need the 1st ATP from above. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Many different compounds in the body can be broken down to yield ATP. The ATP yield of PEP is 1 ATP + 1 NADH + 3 NADH + 1 FADH2 + 1 ATP = 1 + 1 x 2,5 + 3 x 2,5 + 1 x 1,5 + 1 = 13,5 ATP.

The fatty acid which is now 2 carbons shorter than the one we started with will enter the beta-oxidation, which will yield 1 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 acetyl-CoA and a fatty acid which is 4 carbons shorter than the one we started with, and so on.

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